Thursday, March 31, 2016

Radha and Partha Sarathi


Vrindavan is, I have taken to repeating, the de facto spiritual capital of India. The main reason for this is the proximity of Vrindavan to Delhi and the increasing ease of access through modern communications. It is no longer a labor to get from the metropolis to Vrindavan. And speakers of the Bhagavata currently dominate the religious television networks.
 
But the second reason for Vrindavan's rise in status is the acceding to power of the BJP. The BJP is considered by outsiders to be a party of religious nationalism and an engine of identity politics in the interest of the traditional dominant caste of India, the brahmins. Commentators from other political perspectives condemn Hindu nationalism because they associate it primarily with certain backward social ideas, especially racism and communalism. Therefore they make facile comparisons of the BJP to the rise of the racist right wing in the USA (with the politically incorrect Donald Trump) and Islamic fundamentalism.
 
A lot of this is the result of political forces. Nehru wanted India to be a secular state, which was quite different from Gandhi's vision. This is not the place to go into a historical analysis of what has happened over the past 60 years to bring us to this point of having an extremely popular BJP government. But let it suffice to say that for a Hindu, Hindu nationalism is nationalism pure and simple. To love India means to be a Hindu. It is only religious because India is by nature impelled since time immemorial by a fascination with the spiritual and the transcendental.
 
India's social system grew out of this and nothing else. Those who genuinely sought Truth and the highest human values, who developed techniques for finding genuine peace and happiness, and who mastered those techniques themselves, were placed in the center of society. And in the ideal world, those who maintained order, who created economic wealth, and those who worked for the others, all followed the directives that came from this spiritual intelligentsia.
 
Now all systems are subject to degradation and therefore to critique. But the point is that the brahminical system is meant to be elastic and to respond to the challenges of a changing world. But the fundamental challenge of the modern world is that it wishes to deny the insights of ancient man, or shall we say the insights of humanity's first several millions of years of evolution and conclude that somehow the last 200 years was the only time anyone ever said anything intelligent or knew anything about anything.
 
So more than anything, the BJP is about reclaiming that culture that placed spirituality at the center.
 
Amd one must remember that for the Indian, India is a holy place. For the Hindu Indian, at least. The entirety of Bharatavarsha is a holy land, where the gods came to play, where Krishna has his avatar, where saints and sages sat in meditation and had direct encounter with the divinity. Holy waters that awaken an awareness of God's all-pervading presence. This is how one comes to love one's homeland. To say one loves one's motherland means that it becomes sacred for one. It is best that such sacred awareness be recognized for what it is, the DNA of India.
 
Secularism has tried to kill this consciousness. Religion is the opium of the people, they think and believe. For some reason, Hindu secularists who have turned to neo-atheism, or the old Marxist variety, or the Freudian or Nietzschian varieties, have never understood that Hinduism long ago anticipated those arguments and assimilated them. Atheism swept India 2500 years ago. Do you think India does not know atheism?
 
India turned even atheism inward into a sadhana of spirituality and self-perfection.
 
Without expanding any further, I will simply say that the comparisons of Hindu nationalism to Islamic or Christian fundamentalism is fairly limited. One cannot deny that there are points of similarity, but these are in many ways conservative reaction to modern permissiveness and due to a misunderstanding of most atheistic critiques. As a Hindu myself, I tend to see the positive aspect of Hindu nationalism and I support it entirely.
 
Since Vrindavan became the de facto religious and spiritual capital of India, the parliamentarians of the ruling party, the BJP, have been increasingly frequent visitors here. Almost every week, it seems, there is either an important religious event that is attended by political guests, or there is a political convention of some sort.
 
Smt. Hema Malini, our local MP, is a superstar. There is no doubt about that. I attended an event the other day and was asked to speak. Hema Malini was late in arriving, but I had barely stepped up to the mike when she came in the door, surrounded by more paparazzi than we usually have locally. I was quickly forgotten -- as was nearly everyone else on the stage. And when she left, the hall emptied behind her like water being flushed down the sink.
 
This is another source of Vrindavan's current rise in the consciousness of India as a whole.
 
But this would not be the case if Vrindavan did not already have an infrastructure that is 500 years old. If it did not have a historical and mythical connection with the capital of the Pandavas. This is the childhood home of Krishna, the speaker of the Bhagavad Gita, the most important religious book of the Hindus. The advisor and charioteer of Arjuna.
 
Srila Prabhupada had a great sense of humor when he named his Delhi temple “Radha Partha-sarathi,” which is of course so against the principles of the bhakti-rasa shastra that a rasika would have to shake his head.
 
But in fact, Delhi can be seen to represent the adult Krishna. But as the child is father to the man, we also look for him where he was a child. And Krishna was a child in Vrindavan.

To connect Radha to Partha Sarathi would only be possible in Kurukshetra because that is where, according to the Bhagavatam, the childhood lovers saw each other one last time. Only sometime after that was Kurukshetra to become the same place that he spoke the Gita to Arjuna. But how can such a story of separation, of departure from Vrindavan, the complete abandonment of Vrindavan, be agonizingly mocked by linking the name of Radha to that of the very Krishna who had left her behind. Like in the Bhramara Gita where Radha plaintively refers to Krishna as the "friend of Arjuna."

But perhaps bringing Krishna back to Vrindavan was Prabhupada's intent. And if you want to know more about that you will have to read the Chaitanya Charitamrita. And that is where I am going. We are bringing these symbols home to the 21st century.
 
Just recently, perhaps it is still going on, an annual event took place at Vatsalya Gram, the ashram of Sadhvi Ritambhara. Sadhvi Ritambhara is a Bhagavata speaker, and an excellent speaker of the Bhagavatam she is. She is also a political activist on the side of Hindu nationalism.
 
Her event was attended by two of the most highly placed officers of the BJP, Party President Amit Shah and Home Minister Rajnath Singh. Baba Ramdev and other religious leaders who are also tied to the nationalist cause came there. She is without a doubt one of the most prominent and revered women religious leaders in the Hindi-speaking belt. Her involvement with the Babri Masjid/ Ram Janma Bhoomi incident a few years ago, however, makes her a most despised personality in secularist circles.
 
Of late, Sadhvi Ritambhara is less politically active and concentrating on her Vatsalya Gram project here in Vrindavan. Stated quite simply, she is extracting vatsalya, “motherly love”, as her primary lesson from Krishna lila.
 
The cultivation of womanhood, of motherhood, of the feminine power, shakti, is the essence of her mission. And she distills that quality to vatsalya. So she especially tries to create a community for women -- widows and unmarried students -- in order to develop and promote this concept of vatsalya. I personally think she has had an important insight. Her teaching is important, and it comes directly out of Vrindavan and Vraja lila. The inspiration is the sacred symbol of Yashoda.
 
Prabhupad specified Radha with Partha Sarathi. It may take some time before we can bring the mood of madhura rasa into the halls of power. And of course, it is not the madhura rasa itself that would be found there (again, rasabhasa), but the effects of that inner spiritual culture of pure love that is represented by Vrindavan’s queen of Love, Srimati Radharani.
 
The feminine is the shakti. It is the internal power that animates the external masculine power. The character of the shakti affects the character of the shaktiman. Vrindavan represents the shakti, Delhi the shaktiman. 

Sunday, March 13, 2016

Maybe it is time for a domestic war

Tweet from Trump: "Bernie Sanders is lying when he says his disruptors aren't told to go to my events. Be careful Bernie, or my supporters will go to yours!"

Why the hell should the Arabs have all the fun? Why don't we have a war at home? I thought war is such a good thing we are always exporting it. Why not develop the domestic market? Let's reap the benefits of all our good works and have us some jolly little brownshirts and blackshirts rioters fighting it out in the streets of our cities. Summer’s here and the time is right...

We could burn down neighborhoods and stuff like that too. Why the hell not? Our police are armed to the teeth with tanks and even drones, why shouldn't they get to bloody use their toys without fear of being video’d? Or why not video it and become a reality TV cop? Or a reality TV rioter? Why is it only on TV and video games and drone operator offices that you get to spray bullets into target rich targets? And surely all those Clive Bundy wannabes are ready to play! The opportunities are endless!

We all knew the proles would eventually start to get a little annoyed with their shitty lives and so we prepared ourselves. We built our barricaded castles and dressed our cops in a way that makes them look like they are out of a Star Wars set, or from the Terminator or Robocop or whatever it is that policing has become in this age of efficiency, Why not get them out there water canoning some dirty hippies and bikers?

Everyone’s itching for it. Everyone says "fuck" a whole lot — especially if you are a comedian! And everyone thinks it is cool to be angry and pissed off all the time. To think that everyone is an asshole.

Those pundit commentators are right: They should have seen this coming. But it was only Trump who caught the wave and saw what an economic opportunity it all could mean!

Some pundis say that it is that from the time of Nixon we have been moving in this direction, some say it was Reagan, others point to other starting points in other presidencies. But it is not just this or that president, it is much older than that, it used to be called "progress"; and it seems that we are finally beginning to see what all our accumulated progress is doing to us all.

Wasn't this sudden appeal to mass violence inevitable? What is surprising really is that it hasn't happened for so long. It is the sheer increased velocity of life in this century, its relentless demands, and its sheer drudgery that are finally working all this magic.

For progress: Thy name is efficiency! Humanity shall be timewatched and productivity charted to death.

One part of that efficiency is its mastery violence, its efficient wielding of the instruments of control and coercion. Which in no small part includes factory farms that turn life forms, living conscious creatures into economic units, to be fattened and slaughtered without mercy for the sake of economic development of the one and for the contamination of the minds of the rest. May vampire blood course through clogged arteries.

No wonder then that we so love our guns. No wonder that we have so many among us who think that we need them all the time, wherever we go, for who knows what danger lurks? There could be ghosts needing busting in them there woods!

Indeed there are: Ghosts are our sins. The sins of a nation also accumulate. The sins of slavery. The sins perpetrated in the name of global domination. We all partakes in them. But like a cancer metastizing, they affects each part of the society differently. Some people think you can shoot your sins. There are more of them, and they have a lot of guns.

And yes, part of the illusion is to think these things are our strengths! The darkness of ignorance is to see things exactly the opposite to the way they are. And so we are proud to be the toughest, greatest, beatinguppest nation there ever was, coz we are the saviors of the benighted heathens from all the evilest evils that anti-capitalism could ever throw at them. And now thank God, Satan has revealed himself in the Muslim so we can all do battle again. Send the 7th Cavalry off to the Crusades! It is epic! It is Biblical!

Another major part of that wonderful modern efficiency has come from managing the populace into a fairly comfortable majority that is insulated from all the worst of material discomfort. They don’t see the violence but they reap its rewards. They are docile and efficient during the day, and they get nicely indoctrinated at night. They learn what reality is from their infotainments. With just the right amount of sex and drugs to dull the acuteness of the boredom.

The only excitement most people get in their lives is the safe kind — totally vicarious — and yet they are almost entirely devoid of interiority…

Pressures of identity thus become start to become more and more acute with every passing day. No one has any idea of who the hell they are or what they are for, they just have their nicely decorated image built for a world that changes so fast it barely exists at all. Why the hell not be gender fluid? Identity confusion as a way of being. I guess it makes sense in a very weird sort of way. The logical end of deconstruction, but not necessarily in your harmonious Buddhist sort of way. To say the least.

In short, like Trump says, weak! No mettle!

So we should have a war right here in the homeland after all. Share the wealth as it were. And it’s good for the heart. Gets the blood circulating… Increases testosterone. No down side. Shake things up. Make America great again.

Wednesday, March 02, 2016

Faith and Belief

I was talking with some friends about śraddhā on Facebook and I thought I would post this from Swami Veda's Volume I of the Yoga Sutra (1.20).

श्रद्धावीर्यस्मृतिसमाधिप्रज्ञापूर्वक इतरेषाम्॥२०॥
śraddhā-vīrya-smṛti-samādhi-prajñā-pūrvaka itareṣām ||20||

The samādhi of (some) others has as its preconditions faith, strength, intentness, meditation and the awakening of wisdom in samprajñāta. 

[Vyāsa] upāya-pratyayo yogināṁ bhavati | śraddhā cetasaḥ samprasādaḥ | sā hi jananīva kalyāṇī yoginaṁ pāti | tasya hi śraddadhānasya vivekārthino vīryam upajāyate | samupajāta-vīryasya smṛtir upatiṣṭhate | smṛty-upasthāne cittam anākulaṁ samādhīyate | samāhita-cittasya prajñā-viveka upāvartate | yena yathāvad vastu jānanti | tad-abhyāsāt tad-viṣayāc ca vairāgyād asamprajñātaḥ samādhir bhavati ||20|| 
Samādhi, the causal cognition of which is cultivated through method (upāya-pratyaya) accrues to the yogis:
  • Faith (śraddhā) means full clarity and pleasantness of the mind-field. Benevolent like a mother, she protects the yogi.
  • When that yogi holds to faith and seeks discriminating wisdom (viveka), strength (vīrya) gathers in him.
  • As strength gathers in him, intentness attends upon him.
  • At the presence of intentness the mind, free of disturbance, becomes harmonized and established in samādhi.
  • When the yogi’s mind-field has become harmonized and established in samādhi, the discrimination from awakening wisdom (prajñā-viveka) appears, and one then knows the exact reality (yathārtha-vastu).
By the practice (abhyāsa) of that and through dispassion (vairāgya) concerning it, the asamprajñāta samādhi occurs.


Swami Veda Bharati’s commentary (on śraddhā)
Śraddhā is a feminine word, expressive of a gentle quality, associated with humility and reverence, and not over assertiveness or fanaticism. Vyāsa says: "Benevolent like a mother, she protects the yogi."

She is a capable and strong (samarthā) mother, who protects the yogi from the possible calamity of falling onto the wrong path and from becoming attracted to allurements of pleasure (NB). She crushes the power of a thousand impediments so that no breach in the process of yoga may occur.

Such is not the śraddhā of those who have wavered and gone off the path to become videhas and prakṛti-layas. Even though they may have started off with a certain strength of faith and all the rest, they have weakened and turned away from unwavering pursuit of self-realization. This śraddhā, the will to attain the final objective, produces endeavour, maturing in a certain virility and vigour (vīrya).
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This is worth meditating on. Vyasa seems to be equating faith with the desire to find the truth, vivekārthī. In other words, faith means there is a truth to be believed in. Even the most atheist scientist and believer (!) in chaos theory has to admit to that.

So, we satkārya-vādins say, "Just as hunger indicates the existence of food, but not the quality of the food, so similarly faith indicates the existence of truth, but not necessarily the shape of that truth."

Belief is the shape truth takes. It is never objective because it is not based on fact but on interpretation of fact.

Nevertheless, after the fact of experience we use our rationalizing powers to interpret that experience in order to be able to reproduce it. By experience I mean of course "peak" experience. The goal of all śāstra and philosophy is quite simply happiness.

Faith means to believe that happiness exists (because I want it, therefore it must be there to fulfil that natural need), but not necessarily in the means to or content of that happiness.

But rationality applied to experience, engineered by faith can result in perfecting the problem of human happiness.






















Tuesday, March 01, 2016

Archetypes: Remembering the Essence (sāra)

My problems in Krishna consciousness arose out of the mostly literal interpretations given to the shastras by the devotees. There is a huge caveat in the Bhagavatam about everything that is said in that text: Krishna favors indirect speech.
parokṣa-vādā ṛṣayaḥ parokṣaṁ ca mama priyam 
The sages speak indirectly for the indirect mode of teaching is dear to me. (11.21.35)

parokṣa-vādo vedo'yaṁ bālānām anuśāsanam |
karma-mokṣāya karmāṇi vidhatte hy agadaṁ yathā ||

These Vedic literatures teach by the indirect method: they are meant to control or discipline those of incomplete intelligence. They therefore teach sinless works or karma so that these people can become free of karma. (11.3.44)
Gita Press translation [based on Sridhar's commentary]: The Veda has deeper import than what the words apparently convey. The real purpose of the Veda is to secure exemption from actions and their fruit, but the temptations of gaining heaven through prescribed actions are held out to the ignorant, just as a child is tempted with sweets so he will swallow a bitter medicine.

I think the first translation is a bit clearer than the second. But the idea is similar to that in Gita 3.28 where Arjuna is told not to disturb the minds of the ignorant but to encourage them to act in detachment. The idea then is that higher realms of understanding are not accessible to someone on the lower level, but the general principle of action in detachment is the baseline of all spiritual life, and its end result.

What these two statements of the Bhagavatam in effect do is open the doors to various kinds of secondary and tertiary interpretation, which may or may not be already part of the traditional way of thinking about these statements.

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On the pages of this blog I have been taking certain statements as being ruling or governing statements, paribhāṣā. Such statements do not need to be the most numerous statements in a book to still have a dominant position for interpretation in the overall rule. Many of these statements, following the above principle, open the door to different kinds of interpretation than those provided by the simplistic, literal understanding of the texts.

Indeed, the different schools of philosophy in India provide numerous techniques of interpretation that make it possible to envision the purpose of different texts in different ways. Jiva Goswami is himself a master of these different techniques, and it is through them that he arrives at some of his most significant conclusions about Radha-Krishna lila. We now accept his conclusions without question as our starting point, but it was not always so.

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One of the differences in my way of thinking is based on Platonic archetypes as mediated through Jung's psychology. Jung made an effort to be as empiric as possible about psychological phenomena, but of course these are not "hard" science, in the sense that they are based on general observations about the products of the human imagination and the unconscious mind.

What is an archetype? I would define it as the ideal form of a particular universal phenomenon. If we look at Radha and Krishna as male and female archetypes, or together as the archetype of Love, then this understanding will, first of all, give us a deeper understanding of personalist theology, as well as understanding how Radha and Krishna are meant to be psychologically transforming. The humanistic aspect of Vaishnava theism is what I have called its double-mirror effect, i.e., that of mutual reflection. Radha and Krishna cannot be understood without the experience and psychological understanding of love, and human love itself is transformed by meditation on the archetypal love of the Divine Couple.

The original purpose of the rasa-shastra is to educate through transformation. Rasa is always transformative because the melting of the mind that accompanies the experience of rasa leaves samskaras on the conscious and unconscious minds, and these samskaras produce in turn instincts and desires that are, in the case of sattvika or shuddha-sattvika productions conducive to the elevation of consciousness.

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The main purpose I have here is simply to look at some uses of the word sāra, or "essence." These citations are not meant to be exhaustive, and there are other words that are used to express the concept of essentiality in Sanskrit. What I would like to say is that when a reference is made to essentiality, that is an appeal to the imagination to follow the path of experience to go to a place where any limitations of the phenomenal are eliminated and only the Perfect and Pure are left.

This is a natural tendency in the human mind, and indeed, even when we speak negatively about any phenomenon whatsoever, it is due to an unstated or unspoken concept of the ideal, however understood. The presence of ideal characteristics in an ordinary human being results in an ordinary human taking on archetypal qualities, which can have far reaching consequences in human society. Transferring the archetypal qualities to a realm outside direct experience, i.e., the world of the imagination, is one way of protecting ourselves against falsely attributing transcendence to mundane phenomena.

The principal archetypes are all catalogued in different ways in books like Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu and other works of poetics where different kinds of heroic personality types are listed. Because of the vast number of possibilities available to the imagination for ideal personality types, they are personified in particular forms.

So, simply stated, in order to understand Radha and Krishna we are asked to find the essence of certain characteristics and qualities.
lāvaṇya-sāra-rasa-sāra-sukhaika-sāre
kāruṇya-sāra-madhura-cchavi-rūpa-sāre |
vaidagdhya-sāra-rati-keli-vilāsa-sāre
rādhābhidhe mama mano'khila-sāra-sāre ||26||
May my thoughts always rest in her who is named Radha, who is the essence of loveliness, the essence of rasa, the single essence of all happiness; who is the essence of compassion, the essence of all charming depictions of beauty, the essence of cleverness in the arts of love, the essence of amorous love-play, indeed who is the essence of the best of everything. (RRSN 26).

The word sāra appears 30 times in RRSN. This verse is the sāra of them all. The same word appears over 80 times in the Vṛndāvana-mahimāmṛta as well. Not surprisingly, we find the following there:

sakala-vibhava-sāraṁ sarva-dharmaika-sāraṁ
sakala-bhajana-sāraṁ sarva-siddhy-eka-sāram |
sakala-mahima-sāraṁ vastu vṛndāvanāntaḥ
sakala-madhurimāmbho-rāśi-sāraṁ vihāram ||17.85||
 
Residing in Vrindavan is the substance
that is the essence of all opulences,
it is the single essence of all religious duties,
it is the essence of all bhajan
and the single essence of all success;
it is the essence of all glory,
the essence of all the oceans of divine sweetness.
Here are a couple of nice ones from Govinda-līlāmṛta:
nayana-yuga-vidhāne rādhikāyā vidhātrā
jagati madhura-sārāḥ sañcitāḥ sad-guṇā ye |
bhuvi patita-tad-aṁśas tena sṛṣṭāny asārair
bhramara-mṛga-cakorāmbhoja-mīnotpalāni ||
The Creator collected the essence of every beautiful object in the universe to make Radha’s eyes. But when the leftover portions fell to the ground they became the bumblebees, the chakoras, the lotuses and their finest species, the blue lotus.” (Govinda-līlāmṛta 11.100)
dṛṣṭvā rādhāṁ nipuṇa-vidhinā suṣṭhu kenāpi sṛṣṭāṁ
dhātā hrīlaḥ sadṛśam anayā yauvataṁ nirmimatsuḥ |
sāraṁ cinvann asṛjad iha tat svasya sṛṣṭeḥ samāsyā
naikāpy āsīd api tu samabhūt pūrva-sṛṣṭir nirarthā ||143||
Lalita Sundari exclaims, “Seeing Radha’s exquisite form, the Creator desired to make more beautiful women like her. But after collecting his best ingredients and employing his finest artistic ability—he became depressed; not one of them could match Radha! Thus ashamed, he thought: “The lotus and the moon are in no way comparable either !” Hence, just as one crosses out a misspelled word, the creator splotched the lotus with swarms of bees, and scribbled a deer-spot over the moon !” (GLA 11.143-144)

So, what I am saying here is that meditation on Radha and Krishna is an act of the active imagination, in the sense that by searching out the ideal we search out God. In other words, the tendency to the Ideal is the tendency towards God.

I searched out the word sāra, but of course there are many other statements of the same sort using different language. In fact, if we examine the use of alaṅkāra, then we will see that practically all alaṅkāras -- not only in the literature related to Radha and Krishna, but in all Sanskrit poetry and literature -- is meant to push the imagination to an ideal beyond the best of everything, to admire a certain quality or attribute and to stretch it to infinity.

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Just a couple more examples, this time in relation to bhakti itself, or to the process of extracting the essence.

Let us start with what Narottam Das calls the essence of the practice of rāgānugā bhakti:
monera smaraṇa prāṇa, madhura madhura dhāma
yugala vilāsa smṛti sāra
sādhya sādhana ei, ihāra por āra nāhi
ei tattva sarva vidhi sāra
Meditation or remembrance is the life of the mind, an abode of ever-increasing sweetness; and the Divine Jugala’s loving dalliances are the very essence of that remembrance. This is the practice, this is the goal of the practice: this tattva is the cream of all instruction. (Prema-bhakti-candrikā, 62)
Briefly: Since the essence of all meditative practices is to reduce the directedness of the mind to a single object, remembering Radha and Krishna's pastimes is the essence of devotional practice. It is at the same time the end of the practice. Practices are either direct or indirect. When the practice is not different from the goal, that is called a direct practice. Therefore there is nothing beyond this. So reducing both the practice and the goal of the practice to their essence, one comes to prema bhakti. There is nothing beyond this.

So philosophically, it is our job to extract the essence. Therefore Gopāla-tāpanī Upaniṣad has the following:
mathyate tu jagat sarvaṁ brahma-jñānena yena vā |
tat-sāra-bhūtaṁ yad yasyāṁ mathurā sā nigadyate ||
 
The name Mathurā has been given to this land because the manifest essence of the knowledge of Brahman by which the entire universe has been churned appears there. (Gopāla-tāpanī Upaniṣad, 2.63)
Commentaries (VV):
Nārāyaṇa now explains the meaning of the word Mathurā.[1] That by which the entire universe is churned is called matha, or knowledge of Brahman. That knowledge of Brahman is the person of Gopāla. Alternatively, the word found in the verse suggests that the universe is also churned by Madanagopāla.[2] Mathurā is the site where pure knowledge, i.e., where erroneous understanding of the universe comes to an end, is manifest in its essential form.

Prabodhananda and Jiva Goswami [exactly same in both]: By giving the etymology of the word Mathurā, Brahmā reveals more of the glories of the location where one should perform the meditation described in the previous verses. The act of churning produces butter from cream; similarly, knowledge of the supreme person, the personal form of Brahman, is revealed through the churning of the entire universe. The word (“or”) indicates an alternative which is not openly mentioned in the verse, namely bhakti-yoga. The place where both these (i.e., knowledge of the Lord and bhakti-yoga) are revealed in their fullest, most perfect manifestation, is known as Mathurā, i.e., the word mathura refers to the practices of knowledge and devotion (jñāna-bhakti-sādhanam). This meaning can be established from the Uṇādi-sütra.
 
[1]The following verses (63-72) give an explanation of the meditation found in 58b-62, identifying the form of the Lord with the
viśva-rūpa or virāṭ-rüpa.

[2]Scholars have not been able to find any definite etymology for Mathurā. A word matha with this meaning is not found in the dictionary and there is no suffix -urā in usage in Sanskrit. As such the etymology must be considered fanciful. Manmatha a name for Cupid that means that he churns the minds of everyone in the world. Thus the reference to Madana-gopāla.